From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A plasma propulsion engine is a type of electric propulsion that generates thrust from a quasi-neutral plasma. This is in contrast to ion beam engines, which generates thrust through extracting an ion current from plasma source, which is then accelerated to high velocities using grids/anodes. These exist in many forms (see electric propulsion). Plasma thrusters do not typically use high voltage grids or anodes/ cathodes to accelerate the charged particles in the plasma, but rather uses currents and potentials which are generated internally in the plasma to accelerate the plasma ions. While this results in a lower exhaust velocities by virtue of the lack of high accelerating voltages, this type of thruster has a number of interesting advantages. The lack of high voltage grids of anodes, removes a possible limiting element as a result of grid ion erosion. The plasma exhaust is 'quasi- neutral', which means that ion and electrons exist in equal number, which allows simply ion- electron recombination in the exhaust to neutralise the exhaust plume, removing the need for an electron gun (hollow cathode). This type of thruster often generates the source plasma using radio frequency of microwave energy, using an external antenna. This fact, combined with the absence of hollow cathodes (which are very sensitive to all but the few noble gases) allows the intriguing possibility of being able to use this type of thruster on a huge range of propellants, from Argon, to carbon dioxide, Air mixtures to astronaut urine. 
Plasma engines are better suited for long-distance interplanetary space travel missions.
In recent years, many agencies have developed several forms of plasma-fuelled engines, including the European Space Agency, Iranian Space Agency and Australian National University, which have co-developed a more advanced type described as a double layer thruster. However, this form of plasma engine is only one of many types.
Helicon Double Layer ThrusterA Helicon Double Layer Thruster uses radio waves to create a plasma and a magnetic nozzle to focus and accelerate the plasma away from the rocket engine.
A Mini-Helicon Plasma Thruster, ideal for space maneuvers, runs off of nitrogen, and the fuel has an exhaust velocity (specific impulse) 10 times that of chemical rockets.