Source: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=84499

According to Anthropogenic Global Warming (AGW) theorists, rising global temperatures (resulting from anthropogenic CO2 releases) are causing glaciers and polar ice caps to shrink, increasing the amount of solar energy Earth absorbs, and so raising global temperatures even further by this positive feedback effect. This is one reason the climate sensitivity factor (the final, total temperature rise due to an initial warming) has been consistently reported to be around 3 (e.g., an initial rise of one degree from rising CO2 yields a final total of three degrees) for years.

If the theorists are correct, the Earth's albedo (the fraction of solar energy the planet reflects back into space) ought to be getting smaller, although perhaps by only a small amount.

Interestingly, we have sound scientific data on changes of Earth's albedo, so we can test this part of AGW theory against reality, at least over a reasonably time period. This reality is represented by the quote and picture shown below (taken from the source page referenced in the first line):

________________________________________

"The maps [below] show how the reflectivity of Earth—the amount of
sunlight reflected back into space—changed between March 1, 2000, and
December 31, 2011. This global picture of reflectivity (also called
albedo) appears to be a muddle, with different areas reflecting more or
less sunlight over the 12-year record. Shades of blue mark areas that
reflected more sunlight over time (increasing albedo), and orange areas
denote less reflection (lower albedo).

"Taken across the planet, no significant global trend appears. As
noted in the anomaly plot below, global albedo rose and fell in
different years, but did not necessarily head in either direction for
long."

As the quote admits, and your own eyes can plainly see, the change in Earth's albedo over the 2000-2012 time span is either zero or so close to zero as to make no practical difference. And it is clearly in contradiction to what AGW theory, which claims a significant amount of polar and glacial ice loss during this time.

It seems likely, however, that the planet's albedo has been subject to several forces that would either raise or lower it, but that these forces have canceled each other out over this time period. If so, it is reasonable to suggests overall albdedo might decline in the future. But there is no clear evidence that we should expect this. I hold that the steadiness of albedo from 2000-2012 is clear evidence that this positive feedback simply does not exist, or require much larger rises in planetary temperature.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

In physics,

In chemistry, a closely related quantity called "absorbance" or "decadic absorbance" is used instead of optical depth: the

Note that the optical depth of a given medium will be different for different colors (wavelengths) of light.

For planetary rings, the optical depth is the (negative logarithm of the) proportion of light blocked by the ring when it lies between the source and the observer. This is usually obtained by observation of stellar occultations.

**optical depth**or**optical thickness**, is the*natural logarithm*of the ratio of incident to*transmitted*radiant power through a material, and**spectral optical depth**or**spectral optical thickness**is the natural logarithm of the ratio of incident to*transmitted*spectral radiant power through a material.^{[1]}Optical depth is dimensionless, and in particular is not a length, though it is a monotonically increasing function of path length, and approaches zero as the path length approaches zero. The use of the term "optical density" for optical depth is discouraged.^{[1]}In chemistry, a closely related quantity called "absorbance" or "decadic absorbance" is used instead of optical depth: the

*common logarithm*of the ratio of incident to

*transmitted*radiant power through a material, that is the optical depth divided by ln 10.

## Mathematical definitions

### Optical depth

**Optical depth**of a material, denoted

*τ*, is given by:

^{[2]}

- Φ
_{e}^{t}is the radiant flux*transmitted*by that material; - Φ
_{e}^{i}is the radiant flux received by that material; *T*is the transmittance of that material.

*A*is the absorbance.

### Spectral optical depth

**Spectral absorbance in frequency**and

**spectral absorbance in wavelength**of a material, denoted

*τ*

_{ν}and

*τ*

_{λ}respectively, are given by:

^{[1]}

- Φ
_{e,ν}^{t}is the spectral radiant flux in frequency*transmitted*by that material; - Φ
_{e,ν}^{i}is the spectral radiant flux in frequency received by that material; *T*_{ν}is the spectral transmittance in frequency of that material;- Φ
_{e,λ}^{t}is the spectral radiant flux in wavelength*transmitted*by that material; - Φ
_{e,λ}^{i}is the spectral radiant flux in wavelength received by that material; *T*_{λ}is the spectral transmittance in wavelength of that material.

*A*_{ν}is the spectral abosrbance in frequency;*A*_{λ}is the spectral absorbance in wavelength.

## Relationship with attenuation

### Attenuance

Optical depth measures the attenuation of the transmitted radiant power in a material. Attenuation can be caused by absorption, but also reflection, scattering, and other physical processes. Optical depth of a material is approximately equal to its*attenuance*when both the absorbance is much less than 1 and the emittance of that material (not to be confused with radiant exitance or emissivity) is much less than the optical depth:

- Φ
_{e}^{t}is the radiant power transmitted by that material; - Φ
_{e}^{att}is the radiant power attenuated by that material; - Φ
_{e}^{i}is the radiant power received by that material; - Φ
_{e}^{e}is the radiant power emitted by that material; *T*= Φ_{e}^{t}/Φ_{e}^{i}is the transmittance of that material;*ATT*= Φ_{e}^{att}/Φ_{e}^{i}is the*attenuance*of that material;*E*= Φ_{e}^{e}/Φ_{e}^{i}is the emittance of that material,

### Attenuation coefficient

Optical depth of a material is also related to its*attenuation coefficient*by:

*l*is the thickness of that material through which the light travels;*α*(*z*) is the*attenuation coefficient*or*Napierian attenuation coefficient*of that material at*z*,

*α*(

*z*) is uniform along the path, the attenuation is said to be a

*linear attenuation*and the relation becomes:

*attenuation cross section*of the material, that is its attenuation coefficient divided by its number density:

*σ*is the*attenuation cross section*of that material;*N*(*z*) is the number density of that material at*z*,

*N*(

*z*) is uniform along the path, the relation becomes:

## Applications

### Atomic physics

In atomic physics, the spectral optical depth of a cloud of atoms can be calculated from the quantum-mechanical properties of the atoms. It is given by*d*is the transition dipole moment;*N*is the number of atoms;*ν*is the frequency of the beam;- c is the speed of light;
- ħ is Planck's constant;
- ε
_{0}is the vacuum permittivity; *σ*the cross section of the beam;*γ*the natural linewidth of the transition.

### Atmospheric sciences

In atmospheric sciences, one often refers to the optical depth of the atmosphere as corresponding to the vertical path from Earth's surface to outer space; at other times the optical path is from the observer's altitude to outer space. The optical depth for a slant path is*τ*=

*mτ*′, where

*τ′*refers to a vertical path,

*m*is called the relative airmass, and for a plane-parallel atmosphere it is determined as

*m*= sec

*θ*where

*θ*is the zenith angle corresponding to the given path. Therefore,

### Astronomy

In astronomy, the photosphere of a star is defined as the surface where its optical depth is 2/3. This means that each photon emitted at the photosphere suffers an average of less than one scattering before it reaches the observer. At the temperature at optical depth 2/3, the energy emitted by the star (the original derivation is for the Sun) matches the observed total energy emitted.^{[citation needed]}

^{[clarification needed]}

Note that the optical depth of a given medium will be different for different colors (wavelengths) of light.

For planetary rings, the optical depth is the (negative logarithm of the) proportion of light blocked by the ring when it lies between the source and the observer. This is usually obtained by observation of stellar occultations.

**SI radiometry units**

Quantity | Unit | Dimension | Notes | |||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Name | Symbol^{[nb 1]} |
Name | Symbol | Symbol | ||||

Radiant energy | Q_{e}^{[nb 2]} |
joule | J | M⋅L^{2}⋅T^{−2} |
Energy of electromagnetic radiation. | |||

Radiant energy density | w_{e} |
joule per cubic metre | J/m^{3} |
M⋅L^{−1}⋅T^{−2} |
Radiant energy per unit volume. | |||

Radiant flux | Φ_{e}^{[nb 2]} |
watt | W or J/s |
M⋅L^{2}⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time. This is sometimes also called "radiant power". | |||

Spectral flux | Φ_{e,ν}^{[nb 3]}or Φ _{e,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
watt per hertzorwatt per metre |
W/HzorW/m |
M⋅L^{2}⋅T^{−2}orM⋅L⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength. The latter is commonly measured in W⋅sr^{−1}⋅m^{−2}⋅nm^{−1}. |
|||

Radiant intensity | I_{e,Ω}^{[nb 5]} |
watt per steradian | W/sr | M⋅L^{2}⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit solid angle. This is a directional quantity. |
|||

Spectral intensity | I_{e,Ω,ν}^{[nb 3]}or I_{e,Ω,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
watt per steradian per hertzorwatt per steradian per metre |
W⋅sr^{−1}⋅Hz^{−1}orW⋅sr ^{−1}⋅m^{−1} |
M⋅L^{2}⋅T^{−2}orM⋅L⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant intensity per unit frequency or wavelength. The latter is commonly measured in W⋅sr^{−1}⋅m^{−2}⋅nm^{−1}. This is a directional quantity. |
|||

Radiance | L_{e,Ω}^{[nb 5]} |
watt per steradian per square metre | W⋅sr^{−1}⋅m^{−2} |
M⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant flux emitted, reflected, transmitted or received by a surface, per unit solid angle per unit projected area. This is a directional quantity. This is sometimes also confusingly called "intensity". |
|||

Spectral radiance | L_{e,Ω,ν}^{[nb 3]}or L_{e,Ω,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
watt per steradian per square metre per hertzorwatt per steradian per square metre, per metre |
W⋅sr^{−1}⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1}orW⋅sr ^{−1}⋅m^{−3} |
M⋅T^{−2}orM⋅L^{−1}⋅T^{−3} |
Radiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength. The latter is commonly measured in W⋅sr^{−1}⋅m^{−2}⋅nm^{−1}. This is a directional quantity. This is sometimes also confusingly called "spectral intensity". |
|||

Irradiance | E_{e}^{[nb 2]} |
watt per square metre | W/m^{2} |
M⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant flux received by a surface per unit area. This is sometimes also confusingly called "intensity". |
|||

Spectral irradiance | E_{e,ν}^{[nb 3]}or E_{e,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
watt per square metre per hertzorwatt per square metre, per metre |
W⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1}orW/m ^{3} |
M⋅T^{−2}orM⋅L^{−1}⋅T^{−3} |
Irradiance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength. The terms spectral flux density or more confusingly "spectral intensity" are also used. Non-SI units of spectral irradiance include Jansky = 10^{−26} W⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1} and solar flux unit (1SFU = 10^{−22} W⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1}). |
|||

Radiosity | J_{e}^{[nb 2]} |
watt per square metre | W/m^{2} |
M⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant flux leaving (emitted, reflected and transmitted by) a surface per unit area. This is sometimes also confusingly called "intensity". |
|||

Spectral radiosity | J_{e,ν}^{[nb 3]}or J_{e,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
watt per square metre per hertzorwatt per square metre, per metre |
W⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1}orW/m ^{3} |
M⋅T^{−2}orM⋅L^{−1}⋅T^{−3} |
Radiosity of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength. The latter is commonly measured in W⋅m^{−2}⋅nm^{−1}. This is sometimes also confusingly called "spectral intensity". |
|||

Radiant exitance | M_{e}^{[nb 2]} |
watt per square metre | W/m^{2} |
M⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant flux emitted by a surface per unit area. This is the emitted component of radiosity. "Radiant emittance" is an old term for this quantity. This is sometimes also confusingly called "intensity". |
|||

Spectral exitance | M_{e,ν}^{[nb 3]}or M_{e,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
watt per square metre per hertzorwatt per square metre, per metre |
W⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1}orW/m ^{3} |
M⋅T^{−2}orM⋅L^{−1}⋅T^{−3} |
Radiant exitance of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength. The latter is commonly measured in W⋅m^{−2}⋅nm^{−1}. "Spectral emittance" is an old term for this quantity. This is sometimes also confusingly called "spectral intensity". |
|||

Radiant exposure | H_{e} |
joule per square metre | J/m^{2} |
M⋅T^{−2} |
Radiant energy received by a surface per unit area, or equivalently irradiance of a surface integrated over time of irradiation. This is sometimes also called "radiant fluence". |
|||

Spectral exposure | H_{e,ν}^{[nb 3]}or H_{e,λ}^{[nb 4]} |
joule per square metre per hertzorjoule per square metre, per metre |
J⋅m^{−2}⋅Hz^{−1}orJ/m ^{3} |
M⋅T^{−1}orM⋅L^{−1}⋅T^{−2} |
Radiant exposure of a surface per unit frequency or wavelength. The latter is commonly measured in J⋅m^{−2}⋅nm^{−1}. This is sometimes also called "spectral fluence". |
|||

Hemispherical emissivity | ε |
1 | Radiant exitance of a surface, divided by that of a black body at the same temperature as that surface. |
|||||

Spectral hemispherical emissivity | ε_{ν}or ε_{λ} |
1 | Spectral exitance of a surface, divided by that of a black body at the same temperature as that surface. |
|||||

Directional emissivity | ε_{Ω} |
1 | Radiance emitted by a surface, divided by that emitted by a black body at the same temperature as that surface. |
|||||

Spectral directional emissivity | ε_{Ω,ν}or ε_{Ω,λ} |
1 | Spectral radiance emitted by a surface, divided by that of a black body at the same temperature as that surface. |
|||||

Hemispherical absorptance | A |
1 | Radiant flux absorbed by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. This should not be confused with "absorbance". |
|||||

Spectral hemispherical absorptance | A_{ν}or A_{λ} |
1 | Spectral flux absorbed by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. This should not be confused with "spectral absorbance". |
|||||

Directional absorptance | A_{Ω} |
1 | Radiance absorbed by a surface, divided by the radiance incident onto that surface. This should not be confused with "absorbance". |
|||||

Spectral directional absorptance | A_{Ω,ν}or A_{Ω,λ} |
1 | Spectral radiance absorbed by a surface, divided by the spectral radiance incident onto that surface. This should not be confused with "spectral absorbance". |
|||||

Hemispherical reflectance | R |
1 | Radiant flux reflected by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Spectral hemispherical reflectance | R_{ν}or R_{λ} |
1 | Spectral flux reflected by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Directional reflectance | R_{Ω} |
1 | Radiance reflected by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Spectral directional reflectance | R_{Ω,ν}or R_{Ω,λ} |
1 | Spectral radiance reflected by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Hemispherical transmittance | T |
1 | Radiant flux transmitted by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Spectral hemispherical transmittance | T_{ν}or T_{λ} |
1 | Spectral flux transmitted by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Directional transmittance | T_{Ω} |
1 | Radiance transmitted by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Spectral directional transmittance | T_{Ω,ν}or T_{Ω,λ} |
1 | Spectral radiance transmitted by a surface, divided by that received by that surface. |
|||||

Hemispherical attenuation coefficient | μ |
reciprocal metre | m^{−1} |
L^{−1} |
Radiant flux absorbed and scattered by a volume per unit length, divided by that received by that volume. |
|||

Spectral hemispherical attenuation coefficient | μ_{ν}or μ_{λ} |
reciprocal metre | m^{−1} |
L^{−1} |
Spectral radiant flux absorbed and scattered by a volume per unit length, divided by that received by that volume. |
|||

Directional attenuation coefficient | μ_{Ω} |
reciprocal metre | m^{−1} |
L^{−1} |
Radiance absorbed and scattered by a volume per unit length, divided by that received by that volume. |
|||

Spectral directional attenuation coefficient | μ_{Ω,ν}or μ_{Ω,λ} |
reciprocal metre | m^{−1} |
L^{−1} |
Spectral radiance absorbed and scattered by a volume per unit length, divided by that received by that volume. |
|||